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Farmer's 

Handbook on Concrete 

Construction 



crclc for Pa mane ? 



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Farmer's 

Handbook on Concrete 

Construction 

"Concrete for Per mane rue" 

Published by 

Portland Cement Association 

111 \S,»t Washington Strc 
Chicago, 111. 

















Farmer's 



Handbook on 
Construction 



Concrete 



The fact that concrete is a plastic material and is easily cast in 
any required shape makes it especially adapted to farm structures. 
If properly made it will last forever. Its durable qualities are such 
that it means the elimination of cost for repairs and renewals. It 
is a dense and impervious substance affording no harbor for rats, 
vermin, and other destructive agencies. With the exception of the 
Portland cement, the necessary materials are usually found upon 
the farm. For the reasons stated, concrete makes strong appeal 
to the farmer. 

The actual money saved in repairs and reconstruction will soon 
offset any excess cost over other materials. It is often the case, 
however, that concrete structures cost no more than buildings of 
other materials, and often less. 

The farmer can ordinarily do the work with the assistance of his 
farm hands, making it unnecessary to hire an expert carpenter or 
mason. Great economy is achieved in this way. 

Perhaps the greatest benefit to be derived from concrete con- 
struction is the elimination of fire risk. This is of vital importance 
to the farmer, who is usually too far from a town to permit of any 
real protection from fire. 



Aggregates to be Used in Concrete Construction 

The sand, stone, and gravel usually found upon the farms of the 
United States are generally suitable for concrete construction, 
provided the following precautions are taken : 

1. These aggregates must be free from vegetable matter, clay, 

loam, or other foreign substances. 

2. Never use bank-run gravel, unless the sand is separated 

from the pebbles by screening through a J^-inch screen. 

3. For small concrete products, such as drain tile, fence-posts, 

etc., the coarse aggregate (crushed rock or pebbles) should 
range in size from x /% inch to x /i inch. For larger work, 
such as silos, barn floors, ordinary foundations, etc., 
coarse aggregate should range from lj^ inches to J^ inch. 

4. The sand used should be coarse, hard, and clean, and graded 

from J^ inch to fine, with the larger size predominating. 



r 



i 



[Jse great care in hand mixing. 1< is economical to buy a small 
machine mixer if the farmer intends I" UBe concrete in large quan- 

II and Mixing 

The process to be followed when (oneiric ig mixed by hand, 

using a two-bag batch of L:2:4 pro] 

1. Size of nn box for sand should be 2 feet square by 

1 fool high, thus containing 4 cubic feet. 

2. Load sand in wheelbarrows and wheel onto board. 

3. Fill measuring box with sand, lift box, and spread sand 4 

inches thick over board. 

4. Take two bags of cement, place contents as evenly as 

possible over sand. 

5. Turn the sand and cement over until thoroughly mixed, 

so that no streaks of cement or sand appear. 
G. Spread the mixture of sand and cemenl out carefully, place 
measuring box beside it, and fill twice with stone or 
pebbles, then empty onto sand and cement mixture and 
mix thoroughly. 

7. Add three-quarters of required amount of water slowly 

and evenly, at same time mixing the mass. 

8. Continue mixing, adding balance of water when dry spots 

appear, until whole mass has been turned over three or 
four times; this should be sufficient. After final turn- 
ing, shovel into compact mass ready for wheeling away 
to place. 

Below will be found a list of firms which manufacture small con- 
crete mixers suitable for the home concrete worker's requirements. 
Any of these concerns will be glad to send their literature and full 
details of their equipment upon request. 

Albany Hardware Specialty Co., Albany, Wis. 
American Cement Machinery Co., Keokuk, Iowa. 
Archer Iron Works, 243G West 34th Place, Chicago. 
Associated Manufacturing Co., Waterloo, Iowa. 
Atlas Engineering Co., 784 30th St., Milwaukee, Wis. 
Badger Concrete Mixer & Machinery Co., Majestic Building, 

Milwaukee, Wis. 
Blystone Batch Mixer Co., Cambridge Springs, Pa. 
Cement Tile Machinery Co., 110 Roth St., Waterloo, Iowa. 
Chain Belt Co., Milwaukee, Wis. 

Chicago Builders Specialties Co., Old Colony Bldg., Chicago. 

3 






Use groat care In hand mixing. It is economical to buy a small 
machine mixer if the farmer intends to use concrete in large quan- 
tities. 

Hand Mixing 

The process to lie followed when concrete is mixed by hand, 
using a two-bag batch of 1:2:4 proportions: 

1. Size of measuring box for sand should be 2 feet square by 

1 foot high, thus containing 4 cubic feet. 

2. Load sand in wheelbarrows and wheel onto board. 

3. Fill measuring box with sand, lift box, and spread sand 4 

inches thick over board. 

4. Take two bags of cement, place contents as evenly as 

possible over sand. 

5. Turn the sand and cement over until thoroughly mixed, 

so that no streaks of cement or sand appear. 
G. Spread the mixture of sand and cement out carefully, place 
measuring box beside it, and fill twice with stone or 
pebbles, then empty onto sand and cement mixture and 
mix thoroughly. 

7. Add three-quarters of required amount of water slowly 

and evenly, at same time mixing the mass. 

8. Continue mixing, adding balance of water when dry spots 

appear, until whole mass has been turned over three or 
four times; this should be sufficient. After final turn- 
ing, shovel into compact mass ready for wheeling away 
to place. 

Below will be found a list of firms which manufacture small con- 
crete mixers suitable for the home concrete worker's requirements. 
Any of these concerns will be glad to send their literature and full 
details of their equipment upon request. 

Albany Hardware Specialty Co., Albany, Wis. 
American Cement Machinery Co., Keokuk, Iowa. 
Archer Iron Works, 2436 West 34th Place, Chicago. 
Associated Manufacturing Co., Waterloo, Iowa. 
Atlas Engineering Co., 784 30th St., Milwaukee, Wis. 
Badger Concrete Mixer & Machinery Co., Majestic Building, 

Milwaukee, Wis. 
Blystone Batch Mixer Co., Cambridge Springs, Pa. 
Cement Tile Machinery Co., 110 Roth St., Waterloo, Iowa. 
Chain Belt Co., Milwaukee, Wis. 

Chicago Builders Specialties Co., Old Colony Bldg., Chicago. 

3 



IW. E. Dunn Manufacturing Co., Holland, Mich. 
Excelsior Mixer A: Machinery Co., Milwaukee, Wis. 
Ideal Concrete Machinery Co., Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Iowa Foundry & Manufacturing Co., Ft. Dodge, Iowa. 

Jaeger Machine Co., 214 North Rich St., Columbus, ( >hio. 

Koehring Machine Co., Milwaukee, Wis. 

Lansing Company, Lansing, Mich. 

Milwaukee Concrete Mixer & Machinery Co., 135 West Wash- 
ington St., Chicago. 

Municipal Eng. & Contracting Co., 607 Railway Exchange 
Bldg., Chicago. 

National Mixer Co., 100 Fifth St., Oshkosh, Wis. 

Northfield Iron Co., Northfield, Minn. 

Northwestern Steel & Iron Works, Eau Claire, Wis. 

Raber & Lang Manufacturing Co., Kendallville, Ind. 

Ransome Concrete Machinery Co., 1336 Monadnock Block, 
Chicago. 

Republic Iron Works, Tecuraseh, Mich. 

George T. Sheldon, Nehawka, Neb. 

Sioux City Engineering & Machinery Co., Sioux City, Iowa. 

T. L. Smith Co., Milwaukee, Wis. 

Standard Scale & Supply Co., 1345 Wabash Ave., Chicago. 

Sterling Machinery Co., La Crosse, Wis. 

Chas. H. Stehling Co., 401 4th St., Milwaukee, Wis. 

Turner Manufacturing Co., Port Washington, Wis. 

Waterloo Cement Machinery Co., Waterloo, Iowa. 

Bank-run Gravel 

Bank-run gravel should not be used as it comes from the bank 
because no two places in a bank will have the same proportions of 
sand and pebbles. It is, therefore, always essential when using 
I tank-run material to screen the sand from the pebbles and remix 
in the proper proportions. 

Portland Cement 

The definition of Portland cement adopted by the American 
Society for Testing Materials is as follows: 

"Portland cement is the term applied to the finely pul- 
verized product resulting from the calcination to in- 
cipient fusion of an intimate mixture of properly propor- 

4 



tioned Argillaceous and calcareous materials, and to which 
no addition greater than 3 per cent, has been made sub- 
sequent to calcination." 



Portland cement is now manufactured in all sections of the 
United States. There are few places in which it cannot be con- 
veniently obtained. It is made to pass what are known as " Stand- 
ard Specifications" devised by the U. S. Government and respon- 
sible engineering and technical associations. 



QUANTITIES OF MATERIALS REQUIRED FOR VARIOUS MIX- 
TURES OF MORTAR AND CONCRETE 







Materials for One- 
Bag Batch 


Resulting 
Volume in 
Cubic Feet 


Quantities of Cement, Sand, and 

Pebbles or Stone Required for 

One Cubic Yard of Compacted 

Mortar or Concrete 


MlXTURIi 


Ce- 

iii-iit 

in 

Sacks 


Sand 
Cu. 
Ft. 


£> . 

(Li 

Pu o 

GO 


Mor- 
tar 


Con- 

(Tt'tr 


Ce- 
ni'iit 

in 
Sacks 


Rand 


Stone or Peb- 
bles 




Cu. 

Ft. 


Cu. 

Yds. 


Cu. 
Ft. 


Cu 

Yds. 


1 


w 




1.5 




1.75 




15.5 


23.2 


.86 






1 


2 




2.0 




2.1 




12.8 


_'.,.<; 


.95 






1 


2H 




2.5 




2.5 




11.0 


27.5 


1.02 






1 


3 




3.0 




2.8 




9.6 


28.8 


1.07 






1 


2:3 




2.0 


3.6 




3.9 


7.0 


14.0 


.52 


21.0 


.78 


! 


2:4 




2.0 


4.0 




4.5 


6.0 


12.0 


.44 


24.0 


.89 


1 


2^:4 




2.5 


4.0 




4.8 


5.6 


14.0 


.52 


22.4 


.83 


I 


2^:5 




2.5 


5.0 




5.4 


5.0 


12.5 


.46 


25.0 


.92 


1 


3:6 




3.0 


6.0 




6.4 


4.2 


12.6 


.47 


25.2 


.94 



Concrete Silos 

1. There are several types of concrete silos — monolithic, block, 
cement-stave, and stucco or plastered. 

2. Locate silo next to barn with chute facing it. Firm ground 
is necessary to bear great weight of filled silo. 

3. Determine number of animals to be fed and length of feed- 
ing, allowing for normal increase in number of animals in future. 

This table gives the number of cows in herd and tonnage of 
silage for both one hundred and eighty and two hundred and forty 

5 



I of feeding of 40 pounds of silage per cow, also acreae 
estimated to e dimensions i 

meters gi at at leu 

. 
An acre of land gives about of silage I 

els of corn. If any a SO bushels it will 

tuns of sila^ i^sed on a yield of r 10 





Fitt vob lbO Dats 


* 






- 




Simot &to 


Cora 




1 »** 

. .. " 
C*mT 1 Jan. 

- 


Dt*m- 


HeUht 


ht Acre 




: - 


« 








lu 
























11 




























14 








14 11 



















































































Monolithic Silo 






Below is table for amount of horizontal reinforcing: 

HORIZONTAL REINFORCING BARS FOR SILOS OF VARIOUS IN- 
SIDE DIAMETERS 
(Use Square Bakb) 



Distance in Feet Down 
from Top of Silo 


8 Ft. 

DIAM- 
ETER 


10 l-T. 
DlAM- 


12 Ft. 
Diam- 


14 Ft. 
Diam- 
eter 


16 Ft. 
Diam- 
eter 


18 Ft. 

DlAM- 

I.TI.IC 


20 Ft. 
Diam- 
eter 


MInch 
Bare 


\i Inch 

Bars 

Inoh 

24 

12 

W 

W% 

5 

4 

W* 
3 


U Inch 

Bare 

Inch 

24 
24 
16 
12 

8 
7 
6 
5 
4H 


H>ch 
Bare 


H Inch 
Bare 


MInch 
Bare 

[noh 

24 
24 
19 
14 
11 

W2 

8 
7 
6 
5H 


J^Inch 

Bare 


Top to 5 ft 


Inch 

24 
15M 

6 
5 


Inch 

24 
24 
24 
18 
14 
12 

9 

8 
7 


Inch 

24 
24 
20 
16 

10H 

9 
8 

7 


Inoh 
24 


5 ft. to 10 ft 


24 


10 " " 15 " 


17 


15 " " 20 " 


12 


20 " " 25 " 


10 


25 " " 30 " 


$ l A 


30 " " 35 " 


l¥i 


35 " " 40 " 


Wi 


40 " " 45 " . 


5 l A 


45 " " 50 " 


5 







Mixing 

For foundation and floor use — 1 : 2% : 5 mixture of crushed 
stone or pebbles; for walls use 1 : 2J^ : 4. 

All materials are proportioned by volume; 1 bag cement equals 
1 cubic foot. 

Silo Walls 

All walls are made 6 inches thick, with reinforcement placed in 
center. There are seven operations in building silo walls, which 
are as follows : 

1. The reinforcement must be placed ready for the concrete. 

2. The forms set in position. 

3. The concrete mixed and placed in the forms around the rein- 
forcement. 

4. The outside form loosened and raised and reset. 

5. The reinforcement placed for the next course. 

6. The inside form loosened, hoisted, and reset, ready for the 
next section of concrete. 

7. Openings formed in walls for doors, provision made for roof 
and chute, and other details. 

If rough spots are left when forms are removed from interior of 
walls, these can be smoothed over by applying a coat of mortar of 

7 



1 part cement and 1 part fine sand, mixed with water to consistency 
of cream. Before applying, brush wall with dry, stiff brush. 
Wet wall and apply wash. 

Concrete Roof 
The concrete for the roof is laid 4 inches thick on a temporary 
wooden roof, which will be removed in two or three weeks, when 
the concrete attains its strength and becomes self-supporting. 
The concrete should be reinforced with steel rods Y% inch in diam- 
eter. Some of the rods are laid like the spokes of a wheel, 1 inch 
from the under side of the roof. At the eaves the rods are 18 
inches apart; but every other rod runs only half-way to the peak, 
where it is tied to a horizontal ring extending entirely around the 
roof. There are four of these horizontal rings equally spaced from 
the eaves to the center of the roof. Where the straight or radial 
rods meet at the peak they should be hooked and securely tied 
together. In the eaves an additional ring is placed, around which 
are hooked the outer ends of the straight rods. Lower the inner 
form 6 inches to allow for forms of the roof. 



List of Manufacturers 

Monolithic Silo Forms: 

W. H. Limberg, Plymouth, Wis. 

McCoy Silo Form Co., Inc., Berger Building, Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Monolithic Silo and Construction Co., Chicago, 111. 
New Enterprise Concrete Machinery Co., Chicago, 111. 
Polk-Genung-Polk Co., Fort Branch, Ind. 
Reichert Manufacturing Co., Milwaukee, Wis. 
Conklin Construction Co., Hartford, Mich. 
St. Jacobs Lumber and Hardware Co., St. Jacobs, 111. 
Silo Equipment Co., Minneapolis, Minn. 
Chicago Builders Specialties Co., Chicago, 111. 
Concrete Silo Form Co., Dallas, Texas 
Van Guilder Hollow Wall Co., Rochester, N. Y. (hand 
machine). 

Cement Stave Molds: 

Cement Stave Silo Co., Des Moines, la. 

Diamond Concrete Stave Silo Co., Kansas City, Mo. 

Interlocking Cement Stave Silo Co., Des Moines, la. 



Thickness of Walls for Various Structures 
It is impossible to give any hard and fast rule for thickness of 
walls. 

The following, however, may prove of assistance: 

1. 4-inch walls for light work (troughs, etc.). 

2. 6-inch walls for silos, windwalls, etc. 

3. 8-inch walls for barns and houses, (one story.) 

4. 12-inch walls for light foundations. 

5. 15-inch to 24-inch walls for heavy foundations. 

When foundations are built in soft ground, widen at base to 
allow for footing. 




Wall Form on Top of Ground 
For email buildings, such as milk-houses, hydraulic ram houses, spring- 
house8,and poultry sheds, where no cellar is necessary, this form is used. By 
increasing the height of the form, it can be employed for building windwalb 
to protect cattle from cold winds in winter 



Simple Wall Construction 

Walls for small buildings, etc., should be made 6 inches thick 

and the concrete mixed 1:2:4. The forms should consist of 

1-inch siding nailed to 2 x 4 inch studding. Space studs 2 feet 

i and the 1-inch sheathing is nailed to the sides of the studding 

ird the concrete. The bottoms of the studs rest on the con- 



I 



crete foundation and are held in position by strips nailed to them 
and extending to stakes driven firmly into the ground. 

Feeding Troughs 

These troughs can be made any size—from small troughs for 
chickens to large cattle troughs. 

Mix concrete 1:2:3, making the concrete a mushy wet 
consistence, and spade thoroughly in forms. 

Ordinary sized troughs can be built for from 75 cents to $1.00. 
Use wire mesh for reinforcing. 




Hog and Chicken Troughs. 

Feeding Troughs for Hogs 
Feeding troughs for hogs are usually built as a part of the feed- 
ing floor. 

Watering Tanks 

Watering tanks vary in both size and shape. The size is governed 
by the capacity required and the shape is a matter of preference. 
The depth should be about 2J^ feet, the walls 5 inches or 6 inches 
at top and 8 inches or 10 inches at bottom. The sloping face 
allows ice to slip up sides and not push against them. The inflow 
and outflow pipes should be 1}4 inches in diameter. Lay Y^ inch 

10 



I 



steel rods entirely around the tank 2 inches from the top and 1 inch 
from both inner and outer edges. Lay wire mesh in bottom and 
sides of troughs as shown in drawing below. 







Watering Tank. 

The above description relates to an oblong tank, the dimensions 
being 5 feet x 16 feet x 2}4 feet. 



Manure Pits 

Concrete manure pits will save from 30 per cent, to 50 per cent, of 
the manure's strength by preventing it from leaching out, due to 
heavy rains, and from firing or heating caused by lack of sufficient 
moisture. 

Mix the concrete 1 : 2}^ : 4. The size of a manure pit will have 
to be determined in each case. The walls are 6 inches to 8 inches 
thick and floor 5 inches thick. 



Dipping Vats 

Four important points to be considered in building dipping vats: 
1. An entering slide, steep enough to shoot the animal in, but 
not a direct drop. 



2. Must be narrow enough not to allow turning around; long 
enough so as to keep the animal in for one or two minutes, and deep 
enough to cover him when taking the plunge. 

3. Slope at leaving end must be gentle and footing roughened 
so animal may easily scramble to dripping pen. 

4. Provide two dripping pens draining back into vat. Mix 
walls 1 part Portland cement, 2 parts sand, 4 parts pebbles or 
crushed stone. (See Circular 207, Bureau of Animal Industry, 
U. S. Department of Agriculture.) 

Feeding Floors and Barn Floors 

These are built similar to sidewalks in essential parts, varying 
only in a few particulars. 

All interior floors, such as cellars, dairy barn floors, etc., need 
no contraction joints. All outside floors, such as feeding floors, 
driveways, etc., should have contraction joints. All concrete 
floors subject to heavy loads should be made 6 inches thick; light 
loads, 4 inches thick. Use a mix of 1 : 2 : 3, one course. 

Pay strict attention to drainage. In many cases it is better to 
excavate 12 inches and fill in with cinders to assure good drainage, 
at the same time providing a drain from the cinders to some free 
outlet. 

Drain Tile Machinery and Molds 
Sanford Concrete Machinery Co., Toledo, O. 
Acme Tile Machine Co., La Grange, Ind. 
Leavitt Mfg. Co., Urbana, 111. 
Monarch Mfg. Corporation, Boone, la. 
J. B. Foote Foundry Co., Frederickstown, 0. 
Francis Machinery Co., 109 Market St., St. Louis, Mo. 
Iowa Foundry & Mfg. Co., Ft. Dodge, la. 
Groh Bros., Kendallville, Ind. 
W. E. Dunn & Co., 4138 Fillmore St., Chicago, 111. 
Besser Mfg. Co., Alpena, Mich. 
Cement Tile Machinery Co., Waterloo, la. 
Sioux City Engine & Machinery Co., Sioux City, la. 
Ideal Concrete Machine Co., Cincinnati, 0. 
Raber & Lang Mfg. Co., Kendallville, Ind. 
Lansing Co., Lansing, Mich. 
Nappanee Iron Works, Nappanee, Ind. 

12 




Z\4 tZLOCKs- 

Form for Casting Concrete Slabs for Simple Sidewalks. 
For floors of milk-houses and spring-houses, or other small buildings with 
floors resting on the ground, and for walks; small slabs of concrete are very 
convenient. The slabs are cast at any convenient time and stored until 
needed. For walks where no great weight will come upon them, the slabs can 
be made 2 inches thick and about 2 by 3 feet in size. For floors the slabs should 
be made thicker. 



Average Proportions 

As many users of concrete do not wish to take the trouble to 
test their own materials, it is customary for them to use the pro- 
portions which have been found to produce satisfactory results 
under average conditions. These are 1 part of cement, 2 parts 
of sand, and 4 parts of coarse aggregate (expressed 1 : 2 : 4) for 
most classes of construction. In the manufacture of products 
large enough to use aggregate exceeding one inch in greatest di- 
mension the proportion of coarse aggregate may be increased 
accordingly. Conversely, where a fine texture is desired for orna- 
mental purposes, the proportion of cement must be increased, 
reaching its maximum in 1 : 1*^ mortar for troweled surfaces. 
The following table gives the proportions recommended for various 
classes of work: 



1 : 1 mixture for : 
The wearing course of two-course floors subject to heavy 
trucking, such as occurs in factories, warehouses, on 
loading platforms, etc. 

1 : V/2 mixture for: 

The wearing course of two-course pavements, in which 
case the pebbles or crushed stone is graded from J^ to J^ 
inch. 

13 



2 : 3 mixture for: 

Reinforced concrete roof slabs. 

( )ne-course concrete road, street, and alley pavements. 

One-course walks and barnyard pavements. 

One-course concrete floors. 

Fence posts. 

Sills and lintels without mortar surface. 

Watering troughs and tanks. 

Reinforced concrete columns. 

Mine timbers. 

Construction subjected to water pressure, such as reser- 
voirs, swimming pools, storage tanks, cisterns, ele- 
vator pits, vats, etc. 

: 2 : 4 mixture for: 

Reinforced concrete walls, floors, beams, columns and 

other concrete members designed in combination 

with steel reinforcing. 
Concrete for the arch ring of arch bridges and culverts; 

foundations for large engines causing heavy loading, 

some impact and vibration. 
Concrete work in general subject to vibration. 
Silo walls, grain bins, coal bins, elevators and similar 

structures. 
Reinforced concrete sewer pipe. 

: 2*^ : 4 mixture for: 

Building walls above foundation, when stucco finish will 
not be applied. 

Walls of pits or basements, subject to considerable ex- 
posure to moisture but practically no direct water 
pressure. 

Manure pits, dipping vats, hog wallows. 

Backing of concrete block. 

Base of two-course pavements. 

: 2 J^ : 5 mixture for : 

Walls above ground which are to have stucco finish. 
Base of two-course sidewalks, feeding floors, barnyard 

pavements and two-course plain concrete floors. 
Abutments and wing walls of bridges and culverts, dams, 
small retaining walls. 
14 



Basement walls and foundations for ordinary conditions, 

where watertightness is not essential. 
Foundations for small engines. 

1:3:6 mixture for: 

Mass concrete such as large gravity retaining walls, 
heavy foundations and footings. 

1 : 13^ mixture for: 

Inside plastering of water tanks, silos, and bin walls, 
where required, and for facing walls below ground 
when necessary to afford additional protection against 
the entrance of moisture. 

Back plastering of gravity retaining walls. 

1 : 2 mixture for: 

Scratch coat of exterior plaster (cement and stucco). 
Facing blocks and similar cement products. 
Wearing course of two-course walks, floors subjected to 
only light loads, barnyard pavements, etc. 

1 : 2J^ mixture for: 

Intermediate and finish stucco coats. 
Fence posts when coarse aggregate is not used. 

1 : 3 mixture for: 

Concrete block when coarse aggregate is not used. 

Concrete brick. 

Concrete drain tile and pipe when coarse aggregate is 

not used. 
Ornamental products. 

It is not necessary to use waterproofing compounds if care is 
taken to make a dense concrete. Pay particular attention to 
proportions, material, and proper mixing and placing, in order to 
get dense and impervious concrete. The concrete should be mixed 
to a mushy consistence and should be well spaded after placing in 
the forms. Careful work at the start will save much unnecessary 
expense later on. 

Fence-posts 

The usual size is 7 feet long, 3 inches square at top, and 5 inches 
at bottom, or 4 inches square at top and 4 inches by 6 inches at 

15 



I 







Methods of attaching fence wire to concrete posts. 

bottom. Do not make holes through post to attach wire, if pos- 
sible to avoid, as it tends to weaken the post. 

If the farmer contemplates constructing a large number of 
posts, it would be economical to buy steel molds manufactured by 
one of the several companies in this line — see list given below : 

Manufacturers of Post Molds 
H. F. Abbott, 201 E. Main St., Jackson, Mich. 
American Cement Machine Co., Keokuk, Iowa. 
W. W. Bailey, Chadwiek, 111. 
Cement Machine Co., Guthrie Center, Iowa. 
Cement Tile Machinery Co., Waterloo, Iowa. 
Cement Machinery Co., Jackson, Mich. 

16 



Concrete Supply Co., St. Louis, Mo. 

D. & A. Post Mold Co., Three Rivers, Mich. 

Davis Acetylene Co., Elkhart, Ind. 

Hotchkiss Lock Metal Form Co., Binghamton, N. Y. 

Hetzel Steel Form & Iron Works, Warren Ohio. 

Ideal Concrete Machinery Co., Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Illinois Concrete Machinery Co., Buda, 111. 

Indiana Concrete Mold Co., 31 Smith Bldg., Peru, Ind. 

Lansing Company, 601 Cedar St., Lansing, Mich. 

McElroy Post & Pole Co., Cedar Rapids, Iowa. 

Monarch Mfg. Corporation, Boone, Iowa. 

Millam Concrete Fence Post Co., Keinlin and Hamburger 
St., St. Louis. 

Milwaukee Post Mold Co., Merchants and Mfrs. Bldg., Mil- 
waukee, Wis. 

National Concrete Machinery Co., Madison, Wis. 

National Fence Supply Co., Wichita, Kans. 

Northwestern Steel & Iron Works, Eau Claire, Wis. 

Ohio Post Mold Co., 1341 Nicholas Bldg., Toledo, Ohio. 

J. M. Peel & Bro., Marysville, Ohio. 

Staple Post Mold Co., 27 W. Home St., Westerville, Ohio. 

W. B. Jones Boiler Co., Streator, 111. 

These steel molds are known as "gang" molds, and there can be 
made anywhere from 4 to 12 posts at a time. No post should be 
used until at least one month old. For this reason keep a 
supply of posts on hand . It is a good idea to make up a supply 
indoors during the winter, in order to be ready for spring. 

Embed in each corner of post, % inch from the surface, a J^-inch 
steel rod. 



Portland Cement-Concrete Roads 

Portland cement has proved to be the ideal material for high- 
ways. Construction increased from about a half million square 
yards in 1909 to approximately 17,000,000 square yards in 1916. 
Conspicuous advantages of the concrete road are extreme dura- 
bility, reasonable first cost and almost negligible maintenance 
outlay. They are especially adapted to rural roads as they have 
an even but gritty surface, preventing horses from slipping. They 

17 



cannot be transformed into mud or dust and are passable at all 



seasons. 



FIRST COST OF VARIOUS TYPES OF PAVEMENTS 

Cost per Milb 

16-ft. Width 

$9,212.00 



Cost peb 
Square Yard 
$0.98 
1.3tit 12,766.00 

1,50 14,100.00 

1.82f 17,084.00 

1.95f 18,305.00 

1.98* 18,612.00 

2.80f 26,284,00 

* From Engineering and Contracting, April 2, 1913. 
f From Engineering and Contracting, April 1, 1914. 



Class of Number op 

Pavement Cities 

Macadam 11 

Concrete 144 

Bituminous macadam .... 16 

Asphalt 97 

Brick 277 

Bitulithic 47 

Wood blocks 67 



Combined maintenance and repair costs of types of improved 
roads other than concrete in Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode 
Island, New Jersey, and New York for eight years— 1905 to 1912 
— average $608 per mile per year. 

Additional maintenance costs in individual localities for types 
of improved roads other than concrete are as follows : 

Massachusetts 1912— $676.00 per mile 

New York 1911— 926.00 " 

1912—1009.00 " 

New Hampshire 1912— 228.50 " 

Rhode Island 1912— 321.00 " 

New Jersey. 1912— 907.00 " 

England 1909-1910— 415.00 " " per year 

France 1909— 347.00 " 

Maintenance 
Maintenance costs of properly constructed concrete roads should 
be less than $50 per mile per year. 

Construction 

An amply drained and thoroughly compacted subgrade is 
essential. 

The sand must be clean and well graded from fine to 34 inch. 

The stone must be clean, hard, and graded in size from x /i inch 
to 1J^ inch. Crusher-run or bank-run materials must not be 
used. Accurate measuring devices for measuring materials must 
be used and the concrete must be mixed in a batch mixer for at 
least one minute after all materials are in the drum. The propor- 
tions to be used for one-course roads are one part of Portland 
cement, not more than 2 parts of sand, and not more than 3 parts 
of stone or pebbles. 

18 



I 



The concrete is brought to grade with a templet and finished with 

wooden iloats. 

The greeD concrete must be sprinkled as soon as it is firm, 



covered with earth and kept wet for a1 least ten days, 
is kept oil" road at least fourteen days. 



Traffic 



The following is a list of Association Bulletins: 



Bulletin No. 
Bulletin No. 
Bulletin No. 
Bulletin No. 
Bulletin No. 
Bulletin No. 

Bulletin No. 
Bulletin No. 

Bulletin No. 
Bulletin No. 
Bulletin No. 



10 
18 
21 
22 
26 
27 

28 

ioa 

104 
105 
106 



Bulletin No. 107 



Bulletin No. 
Bulletin No. 



108 
109 



Bulletin No. 110 



Bulletin No. Ill 



Bulletin No. 
Bulletin No. 
Bulletin No. 
Bulletin No. 
Bulletin No. 

Bulletin No. 
Bulletin No. 
Bulletin No. 
Bulletin No. 

Bulletin No. 

Bulletin No. 



115 
116, 
117 
118'. 
122 

127 
128 
129 
130 

131 

132 



"Concrete Surface Finish." 

"Reinforced Concrete Chimneys." 

"Concrete Silos." 

"Portland Cement Stucco." 

"Concrete in the Country." 

"Farmer's Handbook on Concrete Const ruc- 
tion." 

"Use of Concrete in Fertilizer Plants." 

"Concrete Highways." 

"Report of Committee on Edisi 

"Factories and Warehouses of Concrete." 

"The Concrete House and Its Construction." 
($1.00 postpaid.) 

"Facts Everyone Should Know about Con- 
crete Roads." 

"Concrete Roads in Flooded Districts." 

"Standard Method of Testing and Specifica- 
tions for Cement." 

"Lessons, General Outline and Suggested 
Exercises for Manual Training Course in 
Concrete." 

"Specifications for Concrete Roads, Streets 
and Alleys with Recommended Practice." 

"Concreting in Winter." 

"Eighth Annual Report of Wayne County." 

"Simple Forms for Concrete." 

"Concrete School Houses." 

"Illustrating the Construction of a Portland 
Cement Concrete Road. 

"Reprint of Editorial from the Duluth News." 

"Build the Maintenance into the Road." 

"Tennis Courts of Concrete." 

" List of Portland Cement Concrete Highways 
in the United States and Canada." 

"Equipment for Concrete Road Construc- 
tion." 

"Remarkable Test of a Concrete Building in 
the Salem Fire." 

19 



Bui: 
Bui 

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3 

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Memoranda 



Memoranda 



Memoranda